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ROSIN is primarily made from pine tree sap.
Rosin is an extremely sticky substance.
Luthiers prefer to call rosin Colophon (col·o·phon) named after an ancient Turkish city known for its high quality resins. In books, a Colophon is the publisher’s emblem at the beginning or ending of a book. Rosin is the horse-hair’s finishing touch, allowing the bow to function.
Rosin is collected from trees, just like trees are tapped for their sap for syrup. Although primarily consisting of pine resin, rosin often is mixed with sap from spruce and fir trees. Rosin may be mixed with beeswax as well. 
When heated, rosin is refined into a blended liquid mixture. This purified resin mixture is then poured into a mold, which then hardens into “cakes.” Rosin cakes are then polished and encased in wood, plastic or cloth.
Rosin colors vary from light to dark and are related to the climate and season in which the tree sap is collected. Darker rosins are softer and stickier than lighter rosins. There are many brands and grades of rosin. 
Rosin selection is a personal preference. Many perceive that tone qualities are affected by the type of rosin applied to the bow, where:  Darker = Warmer  and  Lighter = Brighter.
Rosin makers have experimented with adding silver, gold and bronze to the resin mixture. Bass players use very dark rosin so that the horse-hair grips the bass’s thick strings well.
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Friction, created by rubbing horse-hair across the rosin, powders the rosin. Rosin lasts a long time. Powdered rosin clings to horse-hair.
The cake of rosin below has been used for more than 2 years!
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Introducing the Bow     Parts of the Bow     The Stick     Horse-Hair     The Tip     The Frog     The Winding     How the Bow Works 
 Rosin     Preparing to Hold the Bow     Stick Training Exercises     Bowing Terminology     Down-Bow     Up-Bow     

Bow-Hand Set-Up    Finger Tasks and Functions     The Thumb     Meet ARC     Finger Segments     The Index-Finger   
Bow-Hand Pronation      The Center-Finger and Ring-Finger     Bow-Hand Fulcrum     Ring-Finger Propulsion     Bass Bows 
 Pinky Bow-Tasks     ‘Casting’ the Bow-Hand    Bow-Wrist Tasks    Rotational Inertia    Arco    Clay Smile Exercise    Meet ANGLE 

The Bow-Arm Box     The Shoulder Arc     Bow Contact-Point     String Lanes     Bow-Segment Mastery     Bowing Exercises 

Finding the Bow Contact-Point     “Painting With Sound”     Bowing Exercises Menu     Bow Taps     Bowing Traditions 

Perform Down-Bows     Perform Up-Bows     The Art of the Bow-Change     Articulations     Staccato     Legato 

Mastery Checkpoint One     Building Bow Control     Bow Speed and Bow-Arm Motion     Bow Planning and Distribution

Slow Moving Bow Strokes     Individual Bow Segments     Traveling the Bow     Bowing Dynamics     Mastery Checkpoint Two 

Advanced Techniques     Slurs and Articulations     Slur Training     Locating the Bow’s Balance Point     Ricochet and Spiccato 

Exploring Ricochet     Ricochet Control     Spiccato Training     Spiccato Control     Spiccato Brush Strokes 

Multiple String Crossings     Virtuosic Bow Strokes     Arpeggio Bowing     “Flying” Staccato     Mastery Checkpoint Three 

SCROLL’s List of Bow Strokes