Détaché bow strokes are separate bow strokes (alternating in direction) that remain on the string. Détaché can be performed at any bow-segment and is directed by the index-finger.
By stopping the bow on the string between each bow stoke, the string’s vibration also stops, which in turn creates separated sounds from note to note.
Grand Détaché means to use grand, sweeping, large bow-arm motions. By opening and closing your Bow-Arm Box, you draw the whole bow for each note and play with a small degree of separation between the notes.
In French, MARTELÉ (mahr·tl-ey) means hammered.
Martelé bow strokes are separate bow strokes (alternating in bow direction) that begin with a very strong accent. Martelé bow strokes are performed with a rapid, constant bow-speed. The beginning of each Martelé bow stroke has a clearly defined accent, which is initiated by the index-finger.
In Italian, Martellato means to perform strongly accented bow strokes.
In French, COLLÉ (kohl-ey) means glued or stuck.
Collé bow strokes are heavy on the string short bow strokes. Collé bow strokes are performed by applying a pinch to the string. An abundance of bow-arm weight is directed into very little bow length, causing a harsh, stuck, glued sound to each Collé bow stroke.
In French, SAUTILLÉ (sot·e-yey) means to hop or jump.
Sautillé bow strokes are rapid bouncing motions like a quicker spiccato. Controlled primarily by the bow-hand and wrist, Sautillé is performed with much less bow than spiccato, with almost no bow-arm motion above the wrist.
It is very helpful to lighten your touch, allowing the tension of the strings to cause the bow’s stick to vibrate freely, resulting in tiny bow bounces as defined Sautillé bow strokes.
In Italian, PORTATO(por·tat-oh) means to produce or convey.
Portato bow strokes emphasize notes within a slur in slow tempos. Individual notes in the same bow direction, are produced by varying the amount of weight placed into the bow stroke during the note.
Portato bow strokes help to sound out notes within a slur, enhancing lyrical musical passages. Portato is sometimes called Louré or Tenuto.
In Italian, TREMELO(trem·oh-low) means trembling.
Tremolo bow strokes are extremely rapid, slightly moving notes that are performed on the string at the tip of the bow. The rate of speed of tremolo is not measured or sub-divided. Tremolo notes most often have 3 slashes through the note’s stem. In faster tempos, two slashes may be notated.
Tremolo is commonly employed in orchestral music, where entire string sections create quivering sounds, adding a trembling special tonal effect.
In French, FOUETTÉ (fwe-tey) means whipped or to dart quickly.
Fouetté are single rapid bow strokes performed at the tip of the bow with a speedy follow through motion that lifts the bow off the string.
Fouetté brings attention to notes, since the momentum of the bow stroke creates a huge crescendo. Performed with dramatic bow-arm gestures, Fouetté bow strokes are visually recognized easily and draw the listener’s attention to the intensity of the notes being performed in this manner.
COL LEGNO BATTUTO
In Italian, COL LEGNO BATTUTO (koh len-yo bah- tu-toe) means to hit with the wood.
Col Legno, with the wood, is an instruction to strike the strings percussively with the wood of the bow.
The word Battuto — to hit, is implied and often omitted. Col Legno is used when composers wish to create dramatic effect and is rarely performed, since it may cause slight damage to bows.